Dating sterling silver
Special temporary hallmarks are adopted to commemorate special events and anniversaries.British Assay Offices used commemorative marks in 1935 (Silver Jubilee of King George V), 1953 (Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II), 1977 (Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II), 2000 (Millennium Mark), 2002 (Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II) and 2012 (Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II)."Duty dodger" is the definition of unscrupulous silversmiths that used fraudulent methods to avoid paying the tax (e.g.
Series of alphabetical letters were chosen to indicate the year of assaying (date letter) using "cycles of letters" of different font and size inside punches of various shapes.
In Scotland, Edinburgh has the castle and Glasgow the "tree, fish and bell".
In Ireland, Dublin origin is deduced by the presence of the figure of the crowned harp and Hibernia. XX which introduced this standard reads as follows: "It is ordained, that no Goldsmith of England, nor none otherwhere within the King's Dominions, shall from henceforth....... The 925/1000 (sterling) silver fineness is certified in London and other British Assay Offices by the use of the "lion passant" mark.
The Custom Act of 1842 ordered that imported gold and silver couldn't be sold in Great Britain and Ireland unless it had been assayed at a British Office.
In 1867 the Foreign Mark was introduced adding an "F" to the appropriate British hallmark.